IN the History of Medieval India, Mughal empire played an important role in strengthening & changing the life style of whole India. In this blog you will find detailed and important events that occured during their period. So let’s get started.
Mughal Empire Started in India by the arrival of Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur in 1526 and ended in 1857 after the reign of Bahadur shah II. in the below post you will get to know about the brief details of the mughal empire in India.
- Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur was named Sultan when he was 12 years old and attacked India with the invitation from Daulat Khan Lodi. He is originally from Ferghana or Uzbekistan.
- He defeated Ibrahim Lodi in 1526. This battle is known as 1st battle of Panipat. Babur defeated Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga) in 1527 in the battle of Khanua.
- Gunpowder and artillery were popularized during his period. He died in 1530 and get buried at Aram Bagh. His memoir is called as “Baburnama ” on “Tazuk-i-Baburi”.
- After Babur died Humayun became the sultan and divided the entire empire among his three brothers – Kamran, Hindal & Askari.
- He built Dinpanah at Delhi as his second capital. Sher Shah Suri attacked him at Chausa in 1539 and again in 1540 (Battle of Kannauj or Battle of Bilgrama). Humayun lost the battle and fled to Sind.
- Sher shah Suri died in 1545 and after him his son Islam Shah ruled upto 1553. Again Islam shah was succeded by Adil shah suri. Hemu (Minister of Adil Shah) was the person who runned the government of Adil shah solely.
- Ibrahim Suri and Sikander Suri Challenged the authority of Adil shah Suri and Various battle occurred between them which resulted into breaking down of Suri Empire.
- In 1555 Humayun regained his empire with the help of Bairam Khan. He died in 1556, as he fall from stairs of his Library.
- Humayun-nama was written by Gulbadan Begum (his half sister).
- Abu’l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar was the son of Humayun borned in 1542. He was Coronated by Bairam Khan at 14 years of of age at Kalanaur.
- Bairam Khan represented Akbar in 1556 against Hemu Vikramaditya (PM of Adil Shah Suri). This battle is known as 2nd battle of Panipat.
- From 1556-1560 Akbar ruled under Bairam Khan’s regency and from 1560-62 Under Maham Anga (called as PetticoatGovernment).
- Akbar conquered Malwa in 1961 by defeating Baz Bahadur. He won Gujarat in 1572 called as Battle of Sarnal.
- In the battle at Haldighat in 1576 Mughals army leaded by Maan singh defeated Rajput army leaded by Rana Pratap Singh. He conquered Kashmir in 1586 and Sindh in 1593.
- At the time of his death in 1605, his empire extended as far as Godavary in the Deccan.
- Akbar removed Slavery in 1562, pilgrimage tax in 1563 and forbidded beef in 1583. Akbar introduced Mansabdary System in 1975.
- Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim was eldest of Akbar, also known as Jahangir. In the Treaty of Chittor; Rana Amar Singh (Son of Maharana Pratap) of Mewar submitted before Jahangir in 1615.
- The greatest failure of Jahangir was to loss Kandahar to Safavids (Persia) in 1622. But he regained it in 1639 and again Lost it in 1649.
- Jahangir married Nur Jahan in 1611.
- Tobacco growing was started during the reign of Jahangir but he prohibited smoking use of tobaco in 1617.
- He was married to Mumtaz Mahal who was daughter of Nur Jahan’s brother. He transferred Mughal capital from Agra to Delhi in 1648.
- Shahjahan got Kohinoor diamond from Mir Jumla (Wazir of Golkunda). He expelled Portugese from Huguli in 1632.Shahjahan acquired Kandahar from Persian in 1639.
- He made his son, Aurangzeb, the Viceroy of Deccan. Aurangzeb in 1658 took control from him and made him the prisonery. He died in 1666.
- His reign is considered as the “Golden Age of Mughal Empire”. Taj Mahal was created during his reign (1631- 1653) at Agra. It was mausoleum for his favourite wife Mumtaz.
- He1st defeated the Imperial Army in battle of Dharmatt and then defeated Dara (eldest son of Shahjahan) in the battle of Samugarh and Battle of Deorai to enter Agra.
- He crowned himself with the title of ” Alamgir ” (Conquerror of world).He annexed Bijapur (1686) and Golconda (1689) into his empire to make it largest single sfate in the history of India ever.
- Mughal empire was stretched from Kashmir in North to Jinji (Tamil nadu) in South, from Hindukush in west to Chittagong in East.(21 Provinces in total).
- In 1675 he ordered the arrest and execution of 9th Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur.
- He died in Ahmednagar in 1707. Mughal Empire lost it’s power after the death of Aurangzeb.
- After Aurangzeb died, Bahadur Shah ruled the mughal empire from 1707 to 1712.
- After him Jahandar Shah ruled for one year only. He is known as 1st puppet of Mughal emperor.
- Jahandar Shah was defeated by Farukhsiyar with the help of Sayyid brothers. He gave the permission for trading to East India Company in 1717. But he was murdered by Sayyed brothers in 1719.
- After Farukhsiyar, Mohammad Shah took over the empire but lost it to Nadir Shah in 1739 in the battle of Karnal. He also took away Peacock throne and Kohinoor Diamond. Mohammad shah was the 1st king to give Patronage to Urdu language.
- After him Ahmad Shah ruled from 1748-54, then Alamgir-II from 1754-1758, then Shahjahan-III from 1758-59, then Shah Alam-II from 1759-1806, then Akbar- ll from 1806- 37 and finally Bahadur Shah- Il from 1837 – 1857.
- Bahadur shah was confined to Red fort only by the British. He was proclaimed the emperor by rebels during the revolts of 1857. He died in 1862 in Rangoon.
Thus a golden era of Mughals came to an end suddenly after the death of Aurangzeb and colonisation of British govt.