After the end of World War 1 on 11th November 1918, no one even dreamed of another war of such scale. But here was another world war knocking on the door of world peace just after 21 years. This war was bigger and took more lives than the previous World War. That’s why this was named World War 2. How did the World War 2 started? Which country is responsible for this? What were the conditions that triggered this war, and what are the consequences?
We are going to discuss all these topics in detail in this blog. Read this blog carefully. All your doubts will be cleared here in the end. So let’s start the topic How did the World War 2 started…….
HOW DID THE WORLD WAR 2 STARTED?
- On 31st August 1939, some Nazis took control of Gleiwitz Radio station in West Upper Silesia. It was situated on the border of Germany and Poland. After taking control they broadcasted an anti-German message. In history, this incident is named as Gleiwitz Incident and this became the immediate flashpoint of World War 2.
- This was a well-planned event through which Nazis showed that Polish forces attacked Germany. This was one of a dozen propaganda of Rudolf Hitler by which Nazis justified their invasion of Poland.
- Due to this event on the very next day, that is on 1st September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. On 3rd September 1939, Britain and France declared war on Germany, showing their support to Poland. That’s how World War 2 did start just in a matter of 4 days.
From the above context, anyone will consider that Hitler, Nazism, and Germany are responsible for World War 2, but this is not the whole truth. There are many factors behind the birth of Nazism and Fascism. Only after discussing these factors in detail will we know the truth. So let’s start the discussion with a brief history of World War 2.
THE STORY OF WAR
- As discussed above, the conflict that started in Europe took the shape of a Global war in a matter of days. Germany, Italy, Japan, and some other small countries made an access front against the Britain-led Allies. With the help of assault, they dictated in areas like Continental Europe, North Africa, and East Africa till 1941.
- The biggest setback for Britain allies came when Germany captured France in mid 1940s. Japan joined the war in 27th September 1941 and thus the war reached Asia. Germany invaded Soviet in 22nd June 1941 and started the largest Land Theatre named Eastern Front. This was a biggest mistake in the context of war.
- On the other hand Japan committed a mistake by attacking Pearl Harbour. Due to these two mistake Soviet and America entered into the War which changed the whole course.
- In the battle of Midway in June 1942 Japan lost to America and, in 2nd February 1943 in the battle of Stallin Grad Germany lost to Soviet. Thus the downfall of Access power started.
- The Allied powers captured the German occupied France and Italy and Japan was also forced to retreat in the Pacific.
- With the assassination of Mussolini and suicide of Adolf Hitler in April 1945 Germany surrendered unconditionally. But Japan on the other hand was not backing up and that’s why USA used Nuclear bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Ultimately japan surrendered on 2nd September 1945 after the attack.
This was the brief story of World War 2. Now the question is WHY DID THIS THIS WAR STARTED that killed millions.
WHY DID THIS THIS WAR STARTED
Hitler and Nazis are considered as the reason for this world war but why did Hitler had such motive? What were the cause behind his raising? Actually Hitler’s raising is itself mysterious, behind which many factors were there including the Allied power itself. Along with these there were many other factors that made this war inevitable, so let’s discuss them one by one.
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
- The Gleiwitz incident was the immediate flash point of this war but it was never the first cause. The 1st place where it started was in Palace of Versailles on 28th June 1919 in Paris.
- World War 1 was over and the big four victor nations i.e. USA, UK, FRANCE and Italy signed a peace treaty in this Palace. Although it was called a Peace treaty but its main motive was to control the future of Germany.
- Germany was blamed completely for the World war 1. Germany had no other options left rather than to accept this blame. They were also penalized for this war. Some other punishment for Germany were seizing of territories, demilitarisations or limits or military expansions etc.
- The most harsh demands were from France which has two reason .The first one was that France is the immediate neighbor of Germany and the rise of Germany was a potential threat.The second reason was that France suffered second highest economic losses after Germany and they wanted Germany to pay for this loss.
- Also Rhineland was demilitarised and it was made a physical security barrier. France demanded cash and coal from Germany.
- The demand of France was so huge that Germany was paying it till 2010. This penalty was so huge that it took 92 yrs for Germany to pay.
- Another significant points from treaty of Versailles is that it prohibited Austro-German unification despite large number of Austrians supporting this idea. This was the time when Austrians were considering themselves as German.
- Along with money this treaty cost the German their pride also. On a whole this treaty was an insult to Germany and it resulted in rise of an extreme wave of ultra-nationalism. We will discuss about this on later part of this blog.
THE GREAT DEPRESSION OF 1929
In this section we will discuss how this depression increased the German suffering from treaty of Versailles.
- It started in October 1929 with the crash of wall street stock market. People were fired from their jobs, many became homeless & banks saving were also got destroyed. About 25% of working community in America became jobless.
- The whole world was almost interconnected during this period of communalism and imperialism, that’s why economic crisis in one nation also impacted others nations. That’s how this depression in USA affected Germany.
- Till that time Germany was taking loan from Bank of America but after this depression USA forced German to repay the loan in a short notice. Germany also suffered due to closure of half of their industries without this loan. The obvious outcome of these incident was large scale unemployment.
- In 1933 when Hitler came into power 33%(61 lakh) German were unemployed. All these process worsen the economic crisis of Germany. Bad treatment to Germany, Italy and Japan by Victor nations and economic crisis due to depression were the main reason behind world War 2.
The other reasons were nazism & fascism.
THE RISE OF NAZISM AND FASCISM
- All the above issues gave rise to fascism and nazism in Europe and mainly in Germany. Totalitarianism and dictatorship like ideolism were more accepted by people than democracy.
- In Italy the idealism that stood up was called fasivad and in Germany it was named as Naziwad. The sole motive of these ideolism was to end the democratic idea in society.
- Italy was not given the promised land by allied under the secret negotiations, as it was completely ignored by UK, US & France after world War 1. Basing upon this reason, Benito Musolini established the first fascists dictatorship in 1922. The economic crisis and political unrest at that time also supported his motive.
- On the other hand similar situation made Germany ready to welcome Nazism. Due to the fiery speeches of Hitler and flawed economic policies by the Weimar Republic, people of Germany lost faith in democracy.
- After getting this opportunity Hitler mixed racism in fascism and started promoting nazism. He became chancellor of Germany and declared himself fuhrer. He declared Germany as a ‘superior race’, promoted tha idea of expanding ‘living space’ and also promised to restore the lost pride of Germany. To fulfil this promise he invaded Poland and czechoslovakia.
- Japanese were also angry with the treaty of Versailles as their demand were not fulfilled. Again the economic crisis due great depression gave rise to radical elements in Japan. These radical elements wanted to conquer the whole Asia by entering into Japanese military. Now let’s talk about league of nations and their connection in world War 2.
FAILURE OF LEAGUE OF NATION
- The league of nation was established in 1919 and it’s failure to establish rule of law was another reason for world War 2.
- The main reason for the failures of this league was that only a few nations joined this. Also the league was not prepared to take action against aggressive invasion by Germany, Italy and Japan.
- Their was no force under this league to maintain peace in Europe. So in 1936 when Hitler remilitarised Rhineland, this league couldn’t able to stop him.
- Other than this, league didn’t take any action against Ethiopian invasion of Italy or Manchurian invasion of Japan. Thus the moral of these 3 countries boosted against such invasion and they became the main reason for world war 2.
Apart from all these reason one another reason for world War 2 was policy of Appeasement by allied power’s.
POLICY OF APPEASEMENT
- The allied power’s didn’t take any action against Hitler when he denounced the treaty. This was because they wanted to use Germany against communist soviet. Due to this narrow interest the allied power was not united and this was the biggest tragedy. If these countries had taken necessary and timely measures then Hitler could have never became so powerful and world War 2 could have been avoided.
- Under the Munich agreement of 1938 Germany was given the rights of the German dominated czechoslovakia and Germany promised not to invade further. But in March 1939 nazis broke their promise and invaded the rest of czechoslovakia. Again after this incident neither Britain nor France took any action against Germany.
- This appeasement policy was not only applied by Britain and France but soviet also applied this policy. Just one week before the Poland invasion by Germany the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was signed between nazis and soviet. This further fuelled the German confidence. Officially and publicly this was an non aggression agreement but it had some secret protocols. These protocols were the main base behind Poland invasion of Germany and soviet.
- Though soviets and nazis were opponents but they came together as one against Britain-led-factions and geopolitical aims. But soviet always feared the expansionist policy of Germany. Also there was no security agreement of soviet against Britain and france. That’s why soviet came together with Hitler in 1939. Thus Poland was divided between Germany and soviet.
- Till 22nd June 1941 soviet didn’t participate in world War 2 but when Hitler tried to invade soviet, they became bound to enter into world War 2. This invasion was the biggest mistake of Hitler. After the entry of soviet it was impossible to stop the catastrophic effect of world War 2.
If at all Britain had stopped the appeasement on Germany then Hitler wouldn’t have dared to invade soviet and this war could have been avoided. About 7-8crs people were killed in this war. It included 60 lakh jews and 5crs civilians in that number The whole Europe went into deep economic crisis due to this war and to recover from this crisis world bank Like institutions were established.
This was a total report on “how did the world war 2 started”. Hope you have find this informative. If you have any further doubt then you can comment your question below and we will try to answer that as quickly as possible. Also, comment below the incident you think was responsible for start of World War 2.
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