Last Updated on April 28, 2022 by srikanta

india pakistan relation

There are very few countries in the world who share relation like India and Pakistan in terms of rivalry and friendship. Both the countries were united and was called as undivided India (Akhand Bharat) till 14th Aug,1947. Then the partition process started which divided both the country geographically. Pakistan became independent in 14th Aug, 1947 and India in 15th Aug, 1947. There was no such rivalry present between these two countries back then but suddenly things changed. After the partition there have been many sweets and sour in India-Pakistan relation. Today in this blog you will find out the past, present and future of India Pakistan relation. So read this blog if you want to get a detailed information on India Pakistan relation.


  • After the British government in India, the undivided india was divided into two countries; India and Pakistan. This division was based on religion mainly. After this division India became a secular nation whereas Pakistan developed as a Islamic nation.
  • Majority of states were clear on joining either of the countries but some states like Jammu & Kashmir, Junagarh and Hyderabad were confused and asked for more time to think. Later all these 3 states joined India.
  • Out of these 3 states J&K was attacked by Pakistan in 1948. But Indian government provided military support to King Hari Singh to tackle the situation. Therefore J&K joined India. Now J&K is the root cause of dispute in India Pakistan relation.
  • After this division 12.5 million people were displaced and 1 million people lost their lives due to riots all over the India Pakistan border. Thus this was the point from where the relation between India and Pakistan started to become tensed.

Wars and Conflicts

india pakistan relation

Already a total of 5 wars have been fought between these two countries. The list of these war is given below.

  1. 1948 war
    • This was the 1st war between these two countries. As you have already read; Pakistan attacked Jammu and Kashmir in 1948 during the reign of Hari Singh.
    • So Hari Singh asked for help from India and India helped him to secure his border by providing military support.
    • In this process J&K was added go India but they lost 50% territory of J&K. This territory included Azad Kashmir, Gilgit and Baltistan.
  2. 1965 war
    • It was just after the Indo-China war, where India was on the losing side. So to take the advantage Pakistan attacked India in 1965. But it was their huge mistake.
    • India won this war easily between India and Pakistan under the leadership of Lal Bahadur Shastri.
  3. 1971 war (Bangladesh Liberation War)
    • Till 1971 Pakistan was divided into 2 parts; one is east Pakistan (Bangladesh) and other is west Pakistan. When East Pakistan asked for independence, west Pakistan took heavy military action on it.
    • Therefore with the help of USSR India fought against west Pakistan and helped in Liberation of Bangladesh or East Pakistan. This war escalated the bitterness in India Pakistan relation.
  4. 1984 war
    • In this year India launched Operation Meghdood to capture Siachen. This Siachen was previously occupied by Pakistani militant.
    • In this war Indian military managed to conquer 80% of the Siachen. Siachen gives high strategic advantage in terms of war as it is the highest battlefield in the world. This is also situated at the tri-junction of Pakistan, India and China.
  5. 1999 war ( Kargil war)
    • Many of you might be familiar with this war. This war started when Pakistani militant backed by their Secret agency ISI captured some post in Kargil.
    • There was a severe war but India won this comfortably by regaining control over their post from Pakistani.

Peace Agreements

There had been some peace agreements done in past to make the India Pakistan relation stronger. Many of these agreements mostly came after the war between these two countries. Those peace agreements are listed below.

  1. 1948-Karachi Cease Fire Agreement
    • This was done after the 1st war between these two countries. It was under the influence of United Nations.
    • This agreement didn’t last long as the Pakistani militant didn’t stopped firing in the border.
  2. 1965- Taskent Agreement
    • This was after the 1965 Indo-Pak war. It was signed in Taskent. This peace agreement was initiated by USSR.
    • This agreement was ended because Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri lost his life during the course of this agreement in Taskent.
  3. 1971Shimla Accord
    • During the Bangladesh Liberation War Indian army had occupied upto Islamabad of Pakistan. But Prime Minister Indira Gandhi signed the Shimla Accord as a peace treaty.
    • Under this Accord, Indian army pulled back military from Pakistani territory. Also India handed over 93,000 Pakistani soldiers who were under Indian Captivity after the war.
  4. 1999- Lahore Declaration
    • This was signed after the Kargil war of 1999. Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Bajpayee signed this peace agreement when he visited Pakistan in 1999.
    • Under this various cinfidence building majors were taken. The majors included bus service between two countries, promotions of soft diplomacy, people to people contact etc to strengthen the India Pakistan relation.
    • This treaty also ended after the terrorist attacks on Indian Parilament on 2001.
  5. 1960- Indus Water Treaty
    • It was a real treaty which was not forceful between these two countries and didn’t came due to any war consequences.
    • Here it was discussed that Pakistan would have all the rights over the water flowing in the rivers of J&K.

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Major Attacks

If you think that wars are the main reason for the sourness between India Pakistan relation, then you might be wrong. The very root cause why India don’t trust Pakistan is due to the attacks from Pakistani terrorist groups. All these attacks started after the 1999 war. After loosing 4 wars, Pkaistan was sure that they can’t beat India in military war. Therefore they started terrorist attacks on Indian soil. There have been many attacks but below given attacks are the major one.

  1. 2001- The Parliament Attack
    • It was the 1st attack after the war. The terrorists in this attack belonged to Jaish e mohammed and Lashkar-e-Taiba. These two group had their training ground in Pakistan.
  2. 2008- Mumbai Terror Attack
    • It was the largest terror attack on India. It was also done by Pakistani based Islamic terrorist organization Lashkar-e-Taiba.
  3. 2015- Gurudaspur attack
  4. 2016- URI and Pathankot air base attack
    • After this attack India also launched a surgical strike on terrorist launch pad of Pakistan occupied Kashmir.
  5. 2019- Pulwama attack
    • It was a deadly suicide bombing attack on Indian soldiers. In this attack 40 India soldiers were martyred. In the response to it India also conducted the Balakot air strike.


Border Dispute

The main reason for the bitterness in India Pakistan relation are these border disputes. Below listed borders are mainly creating the dispute between the two countries.

  1. Gilgit-Baltistan
    • This is famous because of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor under the Belt and Road Initiative. It is situated in the northern Kashmir region.
    • Both India and Pakistan are claiming this as their own.
  2. POK/Azad Kashmir
    • This is the region administered by Pakistan as a self governing Jurisdiction. Pakistan say this area is independent but they are having full control over it.
  3. Sir Creek Dispute
    • It is located between Kutch, Gujarat and Sindh province of Pakistan.
  4. Line of Control (LOC)
    • It is a defacto border between India and Pakistan. This is 700 KM long line.
  5. Saksgam or Trans Karakoram valley.
    • This portion was handed over to china as a gift by Pakistani government. It has an area of more than 2700 Sq miles.


Current Progress

  • In 2014 Nawaz Sharif, Ex-Prime Minister of Pakistan was invited to the oath taking ceremony of Narendra Modi. They had a meeting together in Nepal under the SAARC nations.
  • After the 2019 Pulwama attack, India withdrew the tag of most Favoured Nation given to Pakistan for trade. Under this tag Pakistan was able to get export at minimum tariff.
  • Kartarpur corridor- It is located in Pakistan where the founder of Sikhism Guru Nanak Dev took his last breath. A famous Gurudwara called Darbar Sahib is located there. It is famous for visa-free border crossing where Indian pilgrimage can visit this Gurudwara without any visa.
  • Currently no trade or talks are going on between India and Pakistan. But in 2020 India provided Hydroxy Chloroquine medicine to Pakistan to help them to deal with Covid-19 pandemic.
  • India and Pakistan both are the member of SAARC nations but it is not functioning well due to the issues in India Pakistan relation.


Majors to strengthen India Pakistan relation

Below are some suggestions which can be implemented to bring peace and strengthen the relation between India and Pakistan.

  • Strong political reform is needed in Pakistan because, though it is said to be a democratic country, it is not really. Pakistani military has more power than the government of Pakistan. They have the capacity to alter the government at anytime.
  • Steps should be taken by both the countries to improve the bilateral trade between them. This will not only strengthen the India Pakistan relation but also will increase the financial condition in the country.
  • Both the country should jointly address the issue of terrorism and cross border terrorism, which is one of the major reason for bitterness in India Pakistan relation. They should counter terrorism in Kashmir. Pakistan should announce a permanent ban on terrorist organization inside the country.
  • People to people contact should be increased and there should be enough cultural exchange between the two countries. This could bring peace between two countries at earliest.

This was a brief idea about the relation between India and Pakistan. We hope you liked it. Please comment what other thing we could include in this topic to make it more informative. Also mention which part of India Pakistan relation is causing more issues. We will definitely include that topic in this post.

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